Home »Menjawab Atheis »Misconceptions on Evolution 2 Misconceptions on Evolution 2 Review By: aswj-rg.com Restoran: Menjawab Atheis
Several misconceptions have been discussed earlier. This article is a continuation from the previous one. We will go through another three false thoughts which seem to have a great influence on people worldwide. These include evolution is rejected, evolution happens in a slow manner and evolution has never been observed up to this day. Misconception may give a serious effect especially when irresponsible person spreads the information without checking its validity beforehand. It is like a ruthless chain which creates slanders towards a particular religion, ideology etc.
First misconception is by thinking that evolution is debunked because abiogenesis is proven wrong. Abiogenesis can be defined as a spontaneous origination of living organisms directly from lifeless matter. This is not true because the Theory of Evolution only explains how organisms diversified after being created and it has nothing to do with the Origin of Life. Darwin himself never described how life came into existence. Origin of Life deals with abiogenesis which includes chemical evolution as well as other theories. The four stages that make up the Origin of Life consist of evolution of monomers, evolution of polymers, evolution of protocells and evolution of self-replicating system (living cells).
Secondly, evolution can happen fast and not as stipulated by Darwin ‘Evolution is so gradual that human cannot observe them’. For instance, Anopheles mosquitoes which spread malaria can be killed by spraying a synthetic insecticide such as DDT in affected areas. DDT is a lethal nerve-poison. The population of a local mosquito goes into abrupt decline when it is first being sprayed. Most mosquitoes become resistant in a matter of months rather than years after a local spray program is begun now.
This type of mosquitoes was first detected in India in 1959. Due to low frequency of existence in the global mosquito population, DDT becomes ineffective. A strong force of selection in favor of the resistant mosquitoes is immediately created after a local population is sprayed. Another example would be among the bacterial population. New mutations and gene combinations are generated in each bacterial generation within a short generation time and a huge population size. Natural selection acts quickly by favoring the gene versions that confer resistance towards a drug which the bacteria are being exposed. The bacteria adapt themselves to human defenses, evolving right out from under our attempts to get rid of them over the course of many bacterial generations. This is only a small fraction of a single human lifetime in comparison.
Next, evolution has never been observed. This is another fallacious argument as there were many microevolutions being documented and published. In the case of antibiotic resistance, gonorrhea (a type of disease) which could be easily treated using penicillin and sulfa drugs began showing its resistance to penicillin in the late 1960s. The strains of gonorrhea cause the penicillin to be totally ineffective by producing an enzyme called penicillinase which beats the antibiotics. Later in 1980s, during an outbreak in North Carolina, the strains of gonorrhea that do not produce penicillinase started to show resistance towards penicillin. This concluded that certain strains of gonorrhea had gone through a genetic mutation. They had already taken up a chromosome which allowed them to be resistant in a different way.
(Just to recall, antibiotics work by targeting certain structural components in bacteria in order to defeat them. Even just a minor change occurs in their structural components, the changes affect their susceptibility towards antibiotics). By 1980’s, not only we had learnt that some strains of gonorrhea able to produce an enzyme which capable of destroying the penicillin but also other strains were shifting so that penicillin can no longer affect them. In a specific study in the year of 2010, it was discovered that 27 percent of all gonorrhea being tested was resistant to three major antibiotics or some combination of these drugs.
Written By: Ek Pardesi Misconceptions on Evolution 2 | aswj-rg.com | 4.5