Home »Menjawab Atheis »Exploring Evolution Through Modern Science Exploring Evolution Through Modern Science Review By: aswj-rg.com Restoran: Menjawab Atheis
In this article, we will examine the fundamental ofDarwinisme as well as some of the arguments alleged by evolutionists.The theory should be discussed thoroughly and let us go through what are the scientific views on the topic.
Evolution Theory was introduced by Charles Darwin (a naturalist) in the year of 1837 after he travelled around the Galapagos Island. He noted species of finches on the island differed from each other in beak size and shape. He realized that these differences are due to various kinds of environments they are living in. Finally, he concludedthe species had to adapt to their different conditions. This process was laterknown as natural selection. The statement that best described the whole process of evolution is ‘common descent with modifications’.This ideology states that life existed due to chance alone without being created by God. It was aroused from a single cell or cells.
First and foremost, let us explore the First-Protein Hypothesis. The first protein on earth was formed through a reaction which happened under the atmosphere of the early earth. The amino acids which are the building blocks of a protein were formedfrom methane, ammonia, water, hydrogen gas and sparked bylightning. This was demonstrated by Miller-Urey experiment where electrical charge was used to substitute the lightning under controlled condition. At the end of the process, complex organic molecules like amino acids were obtained. Generally, we knew that amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds through a reaction called dehydration catalyzed by an enzyme named peptidyltransferase. All enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes. The major problem here is that how come multiple proteins exist at the same time?
Now, let’s take a look at the Chromosome Fusion Theory. The model seemed to provide a full view on how 24 pairs chromosome of ape is reduced to 23 pairs which is owned by human. A pair of chromosome from ape was thought to fuse together at the site of the telomeres resulting in the formation of chromosome number 2 of human. Evidences supporting the model are quite strong. However, it is important for us to aware that the telomeres contain proteins which act like a cap. Moreover, scientists found a large number of genes on chimpanzee’s chromosomeswas absent on chromosome 2 of human. The genes from chimpanzee should be there at the human’s if fusion ever took place.
Light-coloured“peppered” moth and dark-coloured“peppered” mothcase is one of the good example of microevolution which results from natural selection. During the 19th century, the barks of the trees were darkened by sooty smoke from coal burning furnaces in English industrial cities. Since the dark-coloured moths were harder to be spotted by birds that ate them each time they landed on the blackened trees, they have better chance of survival compared to light-coloured ones.Thus, the dark-coloured mothscontinued being favored by the environmentover generations after the pollution. It showed that a change in terms of allele frequency is possible. It is clear enough that it was not at all an evidence for the speciation.
The origin of the eukaryotic cell is highly related to Endosymbiotic Theory. According to this theory, a cell engulfed a cyanobacterium that soon became a chloroplast. It was also thought that a mitochondrion was a purple bacteria which being engulfed by the cell. As we all know, both mitochondrion and chloroplasts are vital for the cells to carry out their cellular activities. If the cells are lacking any of these organelles, the consequence could be fatal. The cells also contain lysozymes which function to degrade foreign invading microbes. The organelles could have died after being engulfed by the cells.
Next, human and chimpanzee genomes are almost identical (98% similaraty). Once higher parameter is used to align between gene sequences of human and ape, the percentage of similarity obtained was less (89%). More researches had been done and the results are lesser than 98% similarities between the two genomes.
Furthermore, the bacteria acquired immunity after being exposed to a certain antibiotic. Up to date, there is no proof that antibiotic resistance is due to increased genetic information. The information is already present in the bacterial genome. In addition, the bacteria can pass the genes among themselves by exchanging plasmids.
Do wings on ostrich and chickens proves that evolution is in work?These wings do have particular functions such as to scare the enemy, mating purpose and balancing during running eventhough they are not for flying purpose.
Last but not least, sickle-cell disease is the example of beneficial mutation. Heterozygote individual carrying the defected allele is able to survive upon malaria whereas a normal person could have died. Heterozygote women (carrier) seem to have greater fertility as well. The haemoglobin function is impaired not improved. This mutation does not produce a new level of complexity. The mutated gene is still going to be passed on to the next generations by the carrier.
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